Le droit saisi par la biologie
Bien que le mouvement ait été préparé de longue date, il fallut attendre la mise en pratique des innovations les plus spectaculaires de la biologie et de la biomédecine pour que le droit et les juristes mesurent l'importance et la gravité des bouleversements qui allaient en résulter. Les études présentées dans cet ouvrage, sous la direction de Catherine Labrasse-Rion, sont le fruit de travaux effectués au sein d'un séminaire du Diplôme d'études approfondies de Droit privé de l'Université de Paris I ; elles analysent le saississement, voire l'ébranlement, de l'ordre juridique par ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler " la maîtrise biotechnologique de la vie humaine ". A partir de cas correspondants à des pratiques particulières (la biologisation de la filiation ; l'assurance-vie et le SIDA ; le diagnostic postnatal de prédiction ; le diagnostic préimplantatoire), puis à l'aide de concepts juridiques mis à l'épreuve des faits scientifiques (discriminations biologiques et droit des contrats ; les concepts de patrimoine appliqués aux ressources génétiques ; l'adaptation et la résistance des concepts juridiques aux sciences de la vie), ces recherches affrontent enfin les rapports, à maints égards conflictuels, de la science et du droit, (l'expérimentation en double aveugle ; une controverse entre scientifiques au regard des principes du droit processuel ; les représentations de la science par le droit), toutes questions à propos desquelles se cristallisent, de façon générale et sous couvert des méthodes respectives, des enjeux plus profonds de pouvoir et de légitimité. Les regards portés par un biologiste, Antoine Danchin, et par une psychanalyse, Monette Vacquin, sur le travail des juristes révèlent, chacun à leur manière, le chemin qui reste à parcourir.
The Female Body A journey through Law Culture and Medicine
Object of fascination and fantasy, the female body can be idealized, reified or shrouded. “It is we who make women what they are worth and that is why they are worthless”, proclaimed Mirabeau in the days of the Enlightenment, to which Aragon later replied: “Woman is the future of Man”. The ambiguities of the female body are therein exposed. This work examines the relationship between the female body and biomedicine. Many possibilities are offered to women through biomedical techniques: from assistance to procreate (with assisted reproduction) to refusal to do so (contraception, voluntary sterilization, termination of pregnancy); to be informed of genetic predispositions (through the use of available genetic tests); or to improve their physical appearance with cosmetic surgery. But a recurrent question arises: with its rapid progress and its extreme medicalization of the body, can biomedicine liberate women? Or rather, given the risks of the commodification of the body or its parts, is it not a source of exploitation ? The authors of this work, jurists, anthropologists, philosophers, sociologists and doctors, have explored these questions. The contributions from nineteen countries in this international multidisciplinary study analyse the reality of the amazing developments of biomedicine on the female body. Numerous systems are compared for the first time; European, African, North and South American, but also Chinese and Japanese. Beyond highlighting differences, and identifying similarities in the development of “enhancement medicine”, the objective of this work is ultimately to show the complexity surrounding the question of a woman’s freedom over her body and the extent to which this is limited by the State.
Ethics and Law in Biological Research
Scientific research on biotechnologies has become the protagonist of discoveries that exert a formidable impact on public opinion. Every day popular opinion is challenged by the media, so that it becomes not only a witness of these developments, but is also, to a certain extent, forced to become a judge of those cases where human and animal genetics have been investigated over the last decades. The man-in-the-street is thus confronted by moral positions ranging from cautious approval, to wait-and-see attitudes, to unconditional condemnation. On the other hand, scientists are involved in the ethical evaluation of the results of their own research. However, the results of scientific pursuits are capable of producing immediate effects on the daily life of every human being. Consequently, alongside the scientists, people feel strongly about their need and their right to contribute to an accurate assessment of the effects of science on society. This is a collection of essays reflecting a considerable range of different cultural experiences and different ethical underpinnings. The main subject is cloning. Cloning is the most accessible and most readily perceived point of convergence from which ethical judgments on the current developments of scientific investigations can be proposed. Cloning is also the 'paradox' on which the confrontation between scientific research and popular imagination is focused.
Evidence in Anti Doping at the Intersection of Science Law
This book is a comprehensive, practice-oriented guide to the evidentiary regime under the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) including the functioning of the Athlete Biological Passport. It is the first to show how the interplay between science and law affects the collection and evaluation of evidence in anti-doping, and how paradigm shifts in anti-doping strategies may modify evidentiary assumptions implicit to the WADC regime. Unique in its dealing with the subtleties of anti-doping science and legal implications, the book gives lawyers involved in anti-doping the keys to a better understanding of the science underlying the WADC regime, while providing anti-doping scientists with the first reference material to understand the legal framework in which their activities are embedded. The emphasis of the book is on international doping cases and it relies predominantly on CAS awards published up to Spring 2015. Written by an experienced Swiss lawyer it provides an insight into the Swiss legal system and its importance for the legal practice in doping matters. Marjolaine Viret is an attorney-at-law in Geneva, Switzerland, specialising in sports and health law. She has gained significant experience in sports arbitration as a senior associate in one of Switzerland’s leading law firms. She also holds positions within committees in sport, in particular as a member of the UCI Anti-Doping Commission. Ms Viret had her doctorate on anti-doping approved summa cum laude in 2015. She participates as a researcher in a project for a commentary of the 2015 WADC funded by the National Science Foundation and is regularly invited to lecture or speak in various fields of sports law. The book appears in the ASSER International Sports Law Series, under the editorship of Dr. Dave McArdle, Prof. Dr. Ben Van Rompuy and Marco A. van der harst LL.M.
As the use of human body parts has become increasingly commercialized, a need has arisen for new approaches to regulation that moves beyond the paradigm of altruism. During the course of this discussion, the notion of property has become a key concept. Focusing on practical and conceptual perspectives, the multidisciplinary group of authors, which includes specialists in philosophy, law, sociology, biology and medicine, have come together with practicing lawyers to consider both legal provisions and patterns of regulation in countries across Europe. Identifying divergences between different legal traditions, the authors explore various conceptual models which could be used to improve and to guide policy making. With this twin focus on practical and conceptual perspectives, this volume sets the standard for a detailed and innovative discussion of issues surrounding the regulation of research on human tissue.
La vita e le regole
Può il diritto impadronirsi della nuda vita? La società deve rassegnarsi a essere chiusa nella gabbia d'acciaio di un'onnipresente e pervasiva dimensione giuridica? Il libro di Stefano Rodotà affronta in tutta la sua vastità il tema del diritto in relazione alle scelte etiche, sociali e politiche della società contemporanea, alla pervasività del suo potenziale dominio e, di conseguenza, ai limiti da imporre al suo esercizio.
CHIMBRIDS Chimeras and Hybrids in Comparative European and International Research
National, European and international concepts and strategies concerning the legal and ethical framework of chimera and hybrid research are still largely missing, even though they are absolutely necessary in order to use the potential of chimera and hybrid research effectively and efficiently for the benefit of science and society. The outcome of the CHIMBRIDS-Project successfully sheds light on the chances and risks of this research and provides legal solutions to existing problems in order to help decision-makers fulfil their tasks in an informed and efficient manner. This comprehensive volume details the complete results, contributed by 40 scholars from 10 member states of the European Union, Canada, China, Israel, Japan, Switzerland and the US, with descriptive reports of the legal situation in specific countries and in-depth analysis of all scientific, medical, ethical and legal implications of chimera and hybrid research.
Law Anthropology and the Constitution of the Social
This collection of interdisciplinary essays explores how persons and things - the central elements of the social - are fabricated by legal rituals and institutions. The contributors, legal and anthropological theorists alike, focus on a set of specific institutional and ethnographic contexts, and some unexpected and thought-provoking analogies emerge from this intellectual encounter between law and anthropology. For example, contemporary anxieties about the legal status of the biotechnological body seem to resonate with the questions addressed by ancient Roman law in its treatment of dead bodies. The analogy between copyright and the transmission of intangible designs in Melanesia suddenly makes western images of authorship seem quite unfamiliar. A comparison between law and laboratory science presents the production of legal artefacts in new light. These studies are of particular relevance at a time when law, faced with the inventiveness of biotechnology, finds it increasingly difficult to draw the line between persons and things.
Sciences du vivant Les
«Les sciences du vivant sont le siège d'une évolution extrêmement rapide, voire de réels bouleversements. Chacun est aujourd'hui conscient des acquisitions contemporaines dans des domaines tels que: la génomique, la biologie cellulaire ou les neurosciences, sans parler des biotechnologies ou des procédés de l'imagerie pour l'exploration non agressive du corps humain, ou de la recherche de thérapies nouvelles. Puisse cet ouvrage informer sur les avancées scientifiques les plus récentes et contribuer, sinon à une vue unitaire, du moins à un rapprochement des points de vue et à un consensus éclairé.» F.G.
H r dit Tests g n tiques et soci t
Depuis la mise en évidence de la structure de l'ADN par Watson et Crick en 1953, les découvertes dans le domaine de la génétique se succèdent. Elles permettent aujourd'hui de déceler nombre de maladies héréditaires et même de révéler certaines prédispositions héréditaires. À travers un aperçu des possibilités offertes par la recherche génétique, le présent ouvrage, publié à l'initiative du Comité consultatif de bioéthique de Belgique, pose les principales questions éthiques que soulève la pratique des tests génétiques .